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ACLAND, Henry 

Medical missions in their 
relation to Oxford. 
Oxford, 1898. 







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YALE 
MEDICAL LIBRARY 




HISTORICAL 
LIBRARY 



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MEDICAL MISSIONS 

IN THEIR 

RELATION TO OXFORD 

AN ADDRESS 

TO THE 

Oxford QXnivtveitp Jfuntor i§cienrtftc Cfu6 

DECEMBER i, 1897 



SIR HENRY W. ACLAND, BART. 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 

HONORARY PHYSICIAN TO H.P.H. THE FR1MCE OF WALES. 

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH 



©rfort: 116 1E>«g0 gtvttt 
LONDON : HENRY FROWDE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

1898 



MEDICAL MISSIONS 

IN THEIR 

RELATION TO OXFORD 

AN ADDRESS 

TO THE 

Oxford (Univeretfy 2f Utt ' or ^cienftftc £fu6 

DECEMBER i, 1897 

4 BY 

SIR HENRY W. ACLAND, BART. 

K.C.B., F.R.S. 

HONORARY PHYSICIAN TO H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES 

HONORARY STUDENT OF CHRIST CHURCH 



O^fort: 116 Jjtgfl §ttttt 

LONDON: HENRY FROWDE, AMEN CORNER, E.C. 

1898 



CONTENTS. 



APPENDIX 
NOTES :— 



PAOE 

7 



PREFACE ... 

ADDRESS ...... 



5t 



i. Letter to Sib William Gbaingeh Stewart, MD., 

F.R.S.E 51 

2. Dr. Latham on the Mens Medica ... 58 

3. On Comparative Theology . . . . .62 

4. On the Medical Qualifications required for 

Missionaries and Missions .... 69 

5. On the great value in certain Countries of 

Female Fully-qualified Medical and Sur- 
gical Practitioners . . . . .72 

6. On the study of Anthropology in the Univer- 

sity of Oxford . . . . . -74 

Professor Burdon-Sanderson, M.D., F.R.S. . 74 

Professor E. B. Tylor, F.R.S 75 

Henry Balfour, Esq., M.A. . . . 75 

7. The Regulations for the practice of Medicine 

in India ........ 87 

8. On certain Relations between Public Medicine 

and chbistian teaching .... 88 

See also Pandian, T. B., 'Indian Village Folk.' (Elliot Stock, 1898.) 



PREFACE. 



An apology is due to the Chancellor of the 
University, as well as to the members of the Oxford 
University Junior Scientific Club, for the brevity of 
the paper now printed on so great a subject. To 
enter fully upon it as it deserves and needs, was, in 
the broken state of my health, out of my power. 

It seemed to me, however, a plain duty, when 
called upon to speak about it by so eminent a 
person as Sir Grainger Stewart, to do what might 
yet be possible to my failing strength. All the 
reasons for the conclusions to which I have arrived 
could not be fully stated in the course of an 
Address, without going largely into deep questions 
of Comparative Theology, as well as into the great 
subject of the methods and duties of health admi- 
nistration in the Empire of India. 

I am quite clear that it will be a great advantage 
to India, if thoroughly well trained University men 
will heartily join in the Public Health work for 

b a 



PREFACE 



three hundred million subjects of Her Majesty the 
Queen-Empress. All that is needed now for this 
purpose in Oxford is a first-class establishment, for 
the complete teaching of the complicated subjects 
bearing on the public health of India, by my eminent 
successor, the Regius Professor of Medicine, Prof. 
Burdon-Sanderson. To help to obtain this for him 
was one of my reasons for resigning an office, 
become so important, into the hands of such a man. 
I am told, alas ! that the University has not the 
means to provide him with what he now requires. 
His Department should be fitted up so that not 
only University men should be able to study there, 
but that properly qualified native Indian medical 
men should come, by means of Scholarships or other- 
wise, to study along with them ; and also with the 
Oxford men who would be learning some branch 
of the Indian languages, under the eminent Pro- 
fessors in the Indian Institute, where they could 
profit by the inspiration of the Right Hon. F. 
Max Muller, and the help of Sir William Hunter. 

Cannot some wealthy person, grasping the vast- 
ness of the various questions involved in the Public 



PREFACE 

Health of India, at once enable the University to 
give the Regius Professor what he may require ? 
Half the sum lately given by the generosity of 
the Drapers' Company to enlarge the Radcliffe 
Library, would, in a couple of years, effect this 
junction between the old University and native 
Indians, who might, and would, benefit by studying 
for a moderate time the progressive Public Health 
arrangements of the present day with their old 
University fellow-students. Would not the com- 
bination help to bring to an end the sad religious 
and caste prejudices, among the uneducated natives, 
against sanitary administrations for securing healthy 
life? 



MEDICAL MISSIONS 



IN THEIR 



RELATION TO OXFORD. 



Mr. President, 

Permit me in the first place to tender my hearty 
thanks for the permission to address your Scientific 
Society on Medical Missions, a subject of great 
importance to a large part of mankind, and in 
a special manner to you, as the Society which 
founded in Oxford the Lectureship of Robert 
Boyle. 

Robert Boyle was equally devoted to the 
search after truth, whether Physical or Spiritual. 
I therefore need hardly make an apology for 
endeavouring with you to follow his steps. Before, 
however, I enter fully on the subject, I should 
say why I have ventured to ask leave to address 
a Scientific Body on Medical Missions. 



12 

Old age and failing health might appear to 
disqualify me. Yet I feel so deep an interest in 
all your work, past, present, and future, that it 
has appeared to me to be a duty to yourselves and 
to others both in and out of Oxford, to make the 
attempt for the following reason. Some time since, 
Sir Grainger Stewart, the eminent Professor of 
Medicine in the University of Edinburgh, and 
Physician to the Queen in Scotland, requested me 
to bring before the University of Oxford the sub- 
ject of an Institution existing in Edinburgh for 
the education of Medical Missionaries. It was 
established more than half a century ago by the 
famous physician Abercrombie. Sir Grainger 
Stewart is now President of this old Medical 
Mission Institute, and Sir William Muir, K.C.S.I., 
formerly Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West 
Provinces of India, and now Principal of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, is its Patron. Sir Grainger 
Stewart, at my request, was good enough to write 
to me a letter, in which he relates for our common 
benefit his conclusions on the whole subject of 
Medical Missionaries. Before I offer any opinion 
on its application to the particular conditions of 
your Society or to Oxford, I will, with your leave, 
read some parts of his letter as well worthy our 



13 



attention, whether as Anthropologists, Scientific 
Biologists, or Students of Medicine engaged in 
the study of Biology generally, or Modern Medicine 
and any science connected with them. 

Sir Grainger Stewart writes : — 

' It has been said with truth that the lot of Doctors living 
in our day has been a happy one, in respect that we have 
seen such amazing advances in our Sciences and our Art. 
But comparatively few have reflected that in addition to 
these, of which we are so justly proud, there is this advance 
also, that Medicine has found a higher aim and an even 
nobler sphere of usefulness than in any part of its previous 
history. The consecration of the healing art to the great 
work of extending the Kingdom of our Divine Master lends 
a fresh glory to our profession. The fact of this consecration 
gives to many a satisfaction of another and even a deeper 
kind, than that which springs out of the magnificent extension 
of knowledge which has marked the past half century. 

' I have always been interested to notice what a variety 
of attractions our profession possesses. Its numbers are 
recruited, not only by those who have a natural liking for 
the art of healing, or for the sciences that directly underlie 
that art, but many have always been drawn to it by love 
of the study of nature. Some have become Doctors from 
a love of botany, or chemistry, or natural history, and now 
I see in its turn a new group swelling our ranks, young 
men and young women who are drawn to study medicine 
by a desire to utilize it for Mission work. 

' Medical missionaries are entitled to take a foremost place 
as pioneers, whose work may be followed by missionaries of 



14 



other kinds. Experience proves that times of sickness affoid 
to the minister of religion his best opportunities. He has 
then a chance of dealing with the sick, with their anxious 
relatives, and with the bereaved. Some, who in the busy 
struggle of life have never had time to think, get their hist 
leisure when laid upon a sick-bed. Some whose hearts are 
habitually closed, open them to saving impressions when torn 
by anxiety. Some will never listen to heavenly instruction 
till their spirits are broken, as they mourn over their dead, 
or over their empty places. 

' The Medical man is naturally at hand in such circum- 
stances, and if he be bent upon using his influence for 
purposes of religion he has the best opening. Most of all 
when he has been able to save life, has rescued a patient from 
what appeared impending death, he finds access in a degree 
never otherwise possible. He is the ideal typical missionary. 

'But though specially fitted to be a pioneer missionary, 
he is one whose opportunities are never wanting. For the 
sick, and the anxious, and the bereaved, and those who have 
got deliverance from danger, we have always with us. So 
even the oldest and best equipped Mission is the better for 
having physicians or surgeons among the members of its 
staff. 

' The Edinburgh Medical Missionary Society has a history 
which will appeal to you in many ways. It was founded 
in 1841, by Dr. John Abercrombie. He had heard of the 
usefulness of Medical Missions from Dr. Parker, an American 
missionary, who had practised in Canton, and his mind and 
heart were at once powerfully impressed with the idea that 
Edinburgh, which was so famous as a Medical School, might 
also become a centre for organizing Medical Missions. He 



15 



was the first President of the Society. With him were 
associated as Vice-Presidents, Thomas Chalmers, the Professor 
of Divinity ; William Pulteney Alison, Professor of the 
Practice of Physic ; John Goodsir, the Professor of Anatomy, 
and many others. 

' The Society has from the first laid it down as a principle 
that there should be no slipshod, half-educated practitioners 
sent out to do its work, but that the work should be entrusted 
only to men who had enjoyed the best opportunities for the 
thorough mastery of their subject that Edinburgh affords. 
Of course it is not doubted but that the most elementary 
knowledge of medicine may on occasion prove of use to 
a missionary, but experience has convinced our officials that 
nothing short of the best education is worthy of the work 
that our missionaries have to undertake. 

' The Society has at present or has had old students in each 
of the Presidencies of India, in Kashmir, in Siam, in China, 
in Japan, in the New Hebrides, in many parts of Africa, as 
Morocco, by the Lakes, in Livingstonia, and Mashonaland, 
in Madagascar, in Palestine, and other parts of the Turkish 
Empire, among the Red Indians in North America, in Paris, 
in London, in Birmingham, in Glasgow, in Liverpool, in 
Bristol, and in other great home centres of population. 

'The Home Mission work is carried on mainly in the 
Cowgate, on a plot of ground which through many centuries 
has been a field of Christian effort. The students at the same 
time pass through the regular curriculum of the University, 
or the Extra Academical School, and take their degree or the 
licence of the College. The number of students at the 
present time is forty. Of these, thirty-two are young men, 
and eight are young women. 



16 

' The Foreign Missions supported by the Society are carried 
on in three centres : one under the care of Dr. Valentine at 
Agra; another under Dr. MacKinnon at Damascus; and 
the third under Dr. Vartan at Nazareth. Each of these is 
efficient and active, and each of them is working as far as 
possible on lines similar to those of the Home Mission, by 
combining the training of native assistants and nurses with 
the local mission work. 

' The third topic which you name is what I consider to be 
the duty of Oxford in this matter. I feel that in this I am 
scarcely in a position to offer definite suggestions. It would 
obviously be of great value if an interest were awakened 
among the Heads of Houses and other influential members 
of the University, as well as among the students, in the whole 
subject of Medical Missions. If this were once accomplished 
the University might either establish a new Society of its 
own, or might favour us by their co-operation and support. 
We should feel gratified if as our eminent students are and 
are likely to be graduates, who desire that special culture which 
Oxford affords, have been so long accustomed to pass from our 
Universit)' to it, so also undergraduates or graduates of Oxford, 
who might desire to devote their lives to Medical Missionary 
work, might come and study here for a time, where I could 
assure them of a most cordial welcome. I feel it is a great 
privilege that I, as Professor of Medicine in Edinburgh, 
should have the opportunity of speaking on this subject 
through you, who have so long held the corresponding Chair 
in Oxford, to those in your great University who already 
are or who are likely to be interested in such a work as this, 
which I cannot but regard as one of the most real glories of 
modern Medicine.' 



17 



These extracts from the letter of Sir Grainger 
Stewart have stated simply and clearly a principle 
which has been carried out in Edinburgh, with 
growing success, for half a century. Attached as 
I am to Edinburgh, both as a grateful student 
there fifty years ago, and as an Honorary Graduate 
of the University, it would not become me to 
remind you in any detail of the eminence of that 
University in every department of human know- 
ledge : in all Literature and Philosophy ; in Natural 
Science, generally ; in Scientific and Practical 
Medicine. It will be obvious that any Edinburgh 
work, connected as are Medical Missions with all 
those departments of knowledge, requires, to say 
the least, respectful attention from us in Oxford. 
We here are seeking the Truth concerning the 
whole Kosmos. The Museum was opened just at 
the time that Darwin's great work on the Origin of 
Species was made public. Though Darwin was not 
the originator of the theory which led to such vast 
results, yet it is unquestionably true that the views 
of Darwin concerning the growth and development 
of our planet have placed the ideas of modern 
biological science on a new footing. But we, like 
Robert Boyle, have no wish to separate our con- 
ception of the higher endowments of Man from 



18 

a careful inquiry into the actual manner by which 
he became, and is, the highest of all living beings 
on this earth. We cannot in Oxford carry on, 
even if we would, exactly the same work as is 
carried on in Edinburgh by their Mission Institu- 
tion, because we do not live in the midst of so 
extensive and varied a population as the 200,000 
of the great capital of Scotland. We could not 
therefore teach or exhibit the same extent of facts 
bearing upon Medicine in the fullest sense of the 
word, as that which the University of Edinburgh 
does now. It would be unjust to imply that Oxford 
has not taken practically the deepest interest in the 
question put before us by Sir Grainger Stewart. 
It has done so in Africa, in India, in China, in Mela- 
nesia, and elsewhere. Though its main interest has 
been in the direct Evangelization of some of the most 
savage races, it has always felt that no Mission 
station can be considered fully equipped which has 
not a skilled Physician and Surgeon directly or indi- 
rectly connected with it. I will at once say that on 
the receipt of Sir Grainger Stewart's letter I felt, 
although it might be unbecoming for me to address 
the whole University on the subject of the proper 
education of missionaries, that I should be failing 
in my duty to you if I did not point out the 



19 



special reasons why your Society, which is in 
touch with every portion of Science bearing upon 
biological knowledge, should carefully weigh the 
national service you may render by considering Sir 
Grainger's question put to me. The British Em- 
pire has become in this century supreme over nearly 
300,000,000 of people in India alone. The Govern- 
ment of the beloved Empress Queen of that vast 
and unique country is therefore as responsible for 
the education and condition, social or physical, of the 
millions therein, as it is for the condition of a parish 
in Great Britain. Those of you who look forward 
in life to a complete mastery of the great subject of 
modern Medicine in its three departments, Scientific 
Research, Prevention of Disease, Therapeutic, can 
and will more and more use the great opportunities 
which you have for laying, in Oxford, a deep 
foundation in them all. You may look forward with 
joy to having a share in a great beneficent work 
for the people of Imperial India during the next 
century. I dare not venture to bring forward 
detailed illustrations of the reasons for this pros- 
pect. I will, however, remind you that you 
are close to the recently enlarged Indian In- 
stitute, where you may, under the several dis- 
tinguished Professors, acquire the elements of one 



20 

or more Eastern languages, during your residence 

here. 

In India you would find subjects of daily in- 
creasing interest because of the progress of know- 
ledge, yearly obtained, on the nature, origin, and 
causes of disease in almost every climate among the 
vast populations of different nationalities and races 
that constitute man. Whether you worked in 
scientific research, or in the practical prevention, 
or in the cure, of disease, increase of knowledge 
and of beneficent usefulness would be ever de- 
veloping in your daily lives. Among other things 
still to be learnt in India, strange as it may 
appear, is knowledge, which former races may 
have possessed, of the therapeutical value of agents 
known to them, but forgotten by us or still 
unknown. And lastly, may I remind you how 
the conceptions that you already have of the 
nature of Man as Man may be studied with 
daily advancing interest in India, as it could not 
have been till Anthropology was recognized as 
the highest department of Biological Science. It 
may be said with certainty that no nation ever 
had the same duty of acquiring knowledge con- 
cerning the probable origin, history, and evolution 
of the human race, or the same opportunity of 



21 



doing so, as those who dwell in India among the 
Eastern descendants of possibly the first man, and 
the earliest of the great societies of the aneient 
peoples of the earth. 

I do not presume to proceed further in this 
branch of a subject which you may rightly feel, 
with your present great opportunities here for 
research in relation to Anthropology, you under- 
stand better than one so soon about to leave you. 
I therefore pass on to the other branch of the 
whole question, namely, the relation in which 
earnest minded medical men or women should 
stand towards the Evangelization of the world as 
missionaries. It might be thought more becoming 
that I should leave this subject to your professors 
of Divinity, yet Sir Grainger Stewart has imposed 
upon me the duty of speaking of both, if I touch 
upon either. It is needless to enlarge on the im- 
portance of medical aid to missions or missionaries, 
whether for the natives whom they are seeking to 
convert to Christianity, or for the missionaries and 
their families themselves. It is clear that the 
threefold functions of medicine are needed for 
and among missionaries and natives alike. 

It would not become me to occupy your time 
with an account of the present condition of the 



22 

great and complex questions concerning the method 
or duty of promoting true religious life among all 
races, by Christian Missions. The illustrations 
that may be produced are countless. The Gilford 
Lectures, of late years given by men eminent 
for their intellect and learning, are one. Even 
more remarkable is the Congress of Chicago » two 
years since for discussing the relative value of the 
great religions of the world ; as also the fact that 
in this very year there was an international meeting 
of young missionary students, who met in England 
from all parts of the world, in a number over 
a thousand, to discuss the manner in which they 
should help to bring about this object, including 
the places first requiring their special notice, 
whether for general education, or medical care, 
or other humanizing purposes. 

You will remember I stated that in Edinburgh 
students are educated to assist the various Pro- 
testant denominations. It is but just to remark 
that some of the most devoted missionaries and 
martyrs have given their lives for the promotion 
of the Roman branch of the Church Catholic 
from which they proceeded. It seems to me clear 
that entire freedom for medical study should be 

1 Appendix, Note III. 



23 



allowed to all, and that the principle of exclusion 
of particular branches of the Church, although 
permissive, is not one which I should presume to 
lay down as necessary, though every Christian 
denomination is of course at liberty to press its 
own special convictions in its own way on whomso- 
ever it pleases. 

These generalities, which alone I ought to lay 
before you, must be brought to a close. We may 
ask ourselves what then is it suggested that the 
younger generation of scientific students in Oxford, 
and especially the biological and the medical, should 
consider in this matter? I have already reminded 
you that there are, in the Indian part alone of the 
British Empire, nearly three hundred million fellow- 
subjects among whom you may work with advan- 
tage to them and happiness to yourselves, in three 
separate ways or in three ways combined according 
to circumstances. First, in the prevention of disease, 
or the care of the public health among various races 
under every condition of climate, life, and character ; 
secondly, in the treatment of disease under the same 
conditions ; and thirdly, in Christian missions, either 
as coadjutors or as appointed religious teachers, as 
well as medical practitioners, scientists or Health 
Officers. In saying this I do not limit the ques- 

c 2 



24 

tion to the case of India. The case of India, 
however, is more complicated than that of the so- 
called heathen countries or races such as exist, for 
instance, in Africa or the Pacific. India contains 
many millions of devout, educated persons, devout 
and educated according to their race, their birth- 
place, and their creed. In India, moreover, there 
are special legal regulations with which you would 
have to comply, if you were in any way connected 
with the Government, so that any Oxford medical 
graduate desirous of aiding the religious education of 
the natives in conjunction with his own professional 
work, should at once put himself in communication 
with the authorities of his own branch of the 
Church, and with the authorities of the splendidly 
organized civil government of India. 

I can well believe that some of you to whom I 
owe the opportunity of thus briefly and imperfectly 
setting before you a portion of a great subject may 
have asked yourselves, how far it was fitting for me 
to seek this favour at your hands. The building in 
which you are met, the Society to which you belong, 
exist for the purpose of the quest for Truth. I have 
lived in the time when the study of Physical Science 
was supposed to be antagonistic to the study of 
Philosophy or to belief in all Religion. You do 



25 



not hold this view. You meet for the purpose of 
seeking Truth. What is Science but Truth organ- 
ized ? There is the Science of the material universe. 
There is the scientific study of whatever laws exist, 
or may exist, besides those which regulate material 
and measurable matter. To either of these you 
cannot, and do not wish, even if you could, to 
close your eyes. You study organization, the modes 
and the causes of it, wherever they are to be found 
on our planet. You study as never before the laws 
which regulate the stars, it may be infinite in 
number and at infinite distances away. None 
better than you feel that these material laws, pre- 
vailing as they seem to prevail over infinite space, 
do not explain the sentiments, the convictions, the 
conscience, the hopes, which exist in each one of us, 
and constitute clearly the broad line of distinction 
between Man and all other organized beings with 
which we are acquainted. The Oxford Museum 
cannot wholly set aside this wide view of the 
nature of man, any more than the building imme- 
diately opposite to us, built in memory of John 
Keble a few years after your institution was opened, 
can be devoted only to the study of the nature of 
Christian Truth. The very day that Keble College 
was opened a scientific teacher was appointed, who 



26 

was to give instruction that would lead to the 
deepest interest in the progress of your depart- 
ments of Physical Science. I therefore hold that 
the two buildings in this part of modern Oxford, 
by their very organization, set forth in full view 
the principle which the great Bishop Butler laid 
down with unprecedented force, that, for the study 
of Man, for the study of the Universe, for the 
knowledge of God, the material and spiritual laws, 
as far as we can learn them, are alike guided by the 
same infinite Power, infinite Wisdom, and infinite 
Love, little as we may be able to apprehend or 
comprehend the whole of either. 

In looking back at the sketch of the subject 
which I have endeavoured to bring to your 
notice, I am very sensible of its omissions and 
imperfections. One of the deepest interests that 
I have remaining in life is from the fact that 
while you have here great opportunities of study- 
ing special parts of the history and conditions of 
man, these very advantages and opportunities may 
lead you to Butler's conviction that the material 
and spiritual conditions, however they have come to 
pass, must be not separately, but together, studied 
by intellect, in faith, in reverence, and in love. 

The subject of Medical Missions as it is pursued 



27 



in the present day is, as you all know, so complex 
that it is not possible to condense it, even as it 
concerns Oxford, into a brief paper. But still 
I may venture to give, in a few words, some of 
the reasons for this statement, and some of the 
conclusions which seem to me reasonable to draw 
therefrom. 

i. The departments of Medicine in the present 
day, by reason of social progress, are fourfold — 
Scientific, Preventive, Therapeutic, Administrative. 

2. In the nature of the case Medicine has relation 
to every individual of the human race in whatever 
climate ; in whatever state of social organization 
or of disorganization ; of whatever religion ; whether 
in peace or at war. 

3. Its lessons therefore have to be learnt, and 
its conclusions should be known, wherever the 
dwellings of men exist. 

4. The preventive and the administrative parts 
of modern Medicine have, when philosophically 
considered, direct relations with Education, and 
therefore to some extent with the Religious life 
of the individual, and the community. This is a 
fact insisted upon in the present century, since the 
conditions of great cities, and in a less degree that of 
many rural districts, were often found incompatible 



28 

with the possibility of decency— and so were hot- 
beds of drunkenness and vice : and therefore ruinous 
to citizens individually and very dangerous to the 

State. 

5. In all Christian communities the value of 
Medicine was recognized by the Religious Orders, 
and Religious Societies. Hospitals were established 
and administered as religious institutions, as well 
as abodes for the care of the aged, the suffering 
and sick. 

6. The healing of the sick drew thousands of the 
Jews to follow our Lord and His Apostles. The 
idea that the care both of the Body and of the Soul 
of man was inseparably connected, has never been 
absent in the development of Christian commu- 
nities, however disturbed by internal division the 
Christian Church throughout the world may have 
been and is. 

7. This practical principle of love for every human 
being was soon known in the various centres of 
civilization which arose in Asia, Greece, Rome, 
Africa, through the Missions of the Apostles and 
their successors, as they spread with the formation 
of Western Nations, their colonies and dependencies 
throughout the globe. 

8. The conversion to Christianity of all heathen 



29 



nations, and of the greater religious bodies through- 
out the world, has become one of the abiding longings 
of all Christian denominations, however grievously 
they may be divided among themselves. 

9. With the divisions of the Church of Christ 
throughout the world Medicine has nothing to do. 
Yet it must be noted that these divisions exist. 
For it is probable that any Mission — Roman, Eastern, 
Anglican, or generally 'Protestant ' — would select, or 
be selected by, a medical member of the same body. 
It is saddening to speak thus. But practically it 
does not in Oxford affect any who are willing to join 
in the noble work of helping on the physical well- 
being of mankind, a work to which the English- 
speaking races seem to be in the coming century 
especially called. 

10. In the great Institution for Medical Missions 
in Edinburgh, the rule is to help only the education 
of Medical Students who are specially recommended 
by any Protestant body, excluding therefore members 
of the Eastern or Roman Churches. This is perhaps 
natural but unnecessary. It might be right enough 
for us in Oxford to help specially any member of 
the University, attached or unattached, whatever 
his creed. But to enter on this detail is here and 
now out of place. 



30 

ii. The desire for Medical Missions is really a 
Christian missionary movement made by various 
denominations— Anglican, Presbyterian, Baptist, 
Wesleyan— for strictly religious purposes. Many 
devoted missionaries have said that good medical 
men are in some districts, and in some races, whether 
in Africa, India, China, or the East generally, the 
best pioneers for Christianity, whether they be 
religious teachers themselves or not. The goodness, 
sympathy, and blessing of good Christian physicians, 
men or women, naturally attract the natives, whether 
Mohammedans or Buddhists or others, to the char- 
acter of their benefactors. Do you think that 
Alison, or Latham, or the author of Religio 
Medici would not have drawn the natives to 
them ? 

But that is not all. As has been said, there 
are three separate departments of Practical Modern 
Medicine — Preventive, Therapeutic, Curative, where- 
in with the desire of advancing the good of man- 
kind in your hearts you may join in realizing that 
desire through studies begun here, and completed 
in London or Edinburgh or other great populations 
and centres of instruction. 

In either of these departments you may find, in 
the words of Dr. Lowe, ' most inviting fields for the 






31 



exercise of the higher professional accomplishments, 
the prospect of a life of exceptional usefulness, and 
when life's labour is ended, the greeting "Well done, 
thou good and faithful servant".' There is besides 
the honour and privilege of being called to be a 
' fellow worker ' with God, an ambassador for Christ, 
commissioned to be the means, the witness, the 
historian of the highest and noblest developments 
of civilization. Had I life or health, would that 
I might be permitted with some now present to 
help in this great work of the noble-hearted 
Empress of India. 

I must now conclude this brief but serious dis- 
course on a question which you have permitted me 
to place before you. I say serious discourse, 
because it is certain that few men know as well as 
yourselves the great subjects with which you are 
surrounded in the course of your daily work. 
When the institution in which you meet was first 
founded, its object was to place in Oxford the 
opportunity and the means for the study of the 
universe, as far and to such an extent as we, on 
the scale of a single University, may be able to 
study it. You know well the vast progress that 
physical science has made in all directions during 
the sixty years of Her Majesty's reign ; progress in 



32 



the knowledge arising from the minutest examin- 
ation of every part of the organic or inorganic 
world, to the penetrating inquiries which daily fill 
one with amazement as to the constitution of the 
matter, if matter it be, by which the universe is 
filled. You live therefore daily in contact with 
the most advanced knowledge, whether that given 
by the microscope, or by the telescope, with its new 
and wonderful powers through the spectroscope and 
photography. And perhaps you are aware, though 
many of you are probably not students of astronomy, 
that steps are being taken for constructing maps of 
the entire visible part of the universe in which we 
are a veritable atom, and that the experts think 
that there may soon be mapped out many millions of 
these stellar bodies. I say this with your permission 
in order to quote the sentiments of a remarkable 
passage in the writings of one of our older divines, 
on what may be the future life and occupation of 
those that have crossed the valley of the shadow 
of death, and are able to contemplate with the new 
powers of which at present we personally know 
nothing, but by imagination and hope. He says 
that he contemplates innumerable multitudes of 
pure and happy creatures inhabiting and replenish- 
ing ample and spacious regions above ; ignorant of 



33 



nothing that is good and pleasant to be known, 
curious to know nothing that is useless ; endowed 
with a self-governing wisdom yet with a noble 
freedom ; all everywhere full of good, full of rever- 
ence and dutiful love, every one in his own eyes 
as nothing, self-consistent, even free of all self- 
displeasure ; all assured of their existence with God, 
all counting each other's felicity their own, and 
every one's enjoyment multiplied so many thousand- 
fold as he apprehends every one to be perfectly 
pleased and happy like himself. 

You will see why I venture to connect this 
striking picture with your daily life. You are 
always handling with the utmost refinement some 
part of all that can be known, in our present 
existence, of the planet and its surroundings where- 
on we are placed. To you it is familiar day by day, 
that though through life comes death, by death 
comes the means of regeneration to another life, and 
so for ever and ever with the countless organisms 
among which we live. It is remarkable that a 
divine should have drawn this picture, not re- 
markable that you should draw it for yourselves. 
Another picture was drawn by one of the chief 
scientific men of the present century, Faraday. I 
was travelling alone with him in a railway carriage 



34 

on our way to Newcastle, when with Sir James 
Erichsen we were about to arrange, in the year 1850, 
a new system of medical examination for Durham 
University. We had had some earnest conversation 
in the direction of what I have just now quoted, 
and as we approached York Minster I said to 
Mr. Faraday : ' After we reach York we may be 
no longer alone in the carriage. Will you answer 
me one question? What do you think will be 
your occupation in a future life V The great 
scientific man quickly turned upon me with his 
eagle eyes, the wonder of all who saw them, and 
thrice clasping his hands with energy called out : 
' " Eye hath not seen ! nor ear heard ! neither 
have entered into the heart of man the things 
which God hath prepared for them that love Him." 
I shall be witli Christ, that is enough for me.' 
Thus were the faith and love of the Christian soul 
united in the mind of this foremost man of science. 

The two words Medical, and Missionary, include 
ideas as grave as any subject broached or studied 
by the people of Great Britain during the Diamond 
Jubilee. In their nature they include together 
the idea of the higher education of Man — of Man 
Spiritual and of Man Material — wheresoever, when- 
soever his origin, whatsoever the conditions of his 



35 



past and his present on our planet, or his possible 
future. 

The movement, though it did not escape the wide 
insight of Hippocrates more than 2,000 years ago, 
has only assumed its present form and proportion 
in our day. 

It is primarily due to the growth of the Christian 
Church throughout the world, and may be said 
generally to have originated with St. Paul in 
obedience to the express command of our Lord, 
to preach the Kingdom of God to all nations, and 
to heal the sick. 

It would ill become me to give even the slightest 
sketch of the history of the growth of Christianity, 
or of the persecutions of the followers of Christ, 
from the time of the ' Christianos ad Leones ' in the 
Coliseum of Rome to the present day, except in 
so far as is essential for what has to be said on 
the relations of missionary work to yourselves as 
Biologists, and to Oxford ; and especially in its 
bearing on India and the University. Christianity 
was established in Southern India 1,500 years since, 
and, strange as it may appear, partly by a Bishop 
from Babylon. It is almost needless to add, that the 
present earnest and extensive movement includes 
the desire to obtain the help of Modern Medicine 



36 

for the religious purpose of spreading Christianity 
among all non-Christian races or peoples in any 
and every locality, in any and every condition of 
barbarism, or civilization, or culture. Under these 
circumstances there are two difficulties that at once 
meet the Medical Profession. 

First, the various creeds which are advanced or 
propagated by different branches of the Christian 
Church. One who desires to promote the physical 
perfection of individual or population, either by the 
prevention or by the treatment of disease, and to 
be also a Missionary, has to decide to which 
branch of the Church he shall attach himself, in 
what manner, and for what purpose. 

You will observe that, first, I do not at present 
offer any opinion as to the choice you may make, 
if a definite choice be made ; and second, that by 
proclaiming yourself a missionary of any special 
religious body, you depart from the fundamental 
principle of Modern Medicine that has to work 
with, and for all mankind. Medicine has become 
in our day essentially an educational, as well as a 
physical agent, and therefore an educating power. 
This was fully stated nearly half a century ago '. 

1 Michel Levy and myself. See Health, Work, and Flay, 1856, and 
Memoir on the Cholera at Oxford in the year 1854. Oxford, 1856. 



37 



Upon Sir Grainger Stewart's communication, 
important and interesting, whether we consider 
the great subject he discussed, or the character 
and position of the writer, or the place of Oxford 
in history, past and present, I would now venture 
to make a brief statement before I give my own 
conclusions. 

Whatever views we may hold as to the origin 
and nature of man, whether evolved through 
millions of ages from oceanic protoplasms, or more 
rapidly produced from animals nearer akin to him- 
self, this is certain — that the beings we know 
as the Races of Man possess not only a material 
structure differing in some particulars from that of 
all other animals, but a mental organization and 
capacity for intellectual development which no 
other organic being has. Further, this mental de- 
velopment has been expressed from time to time 
in various races, either through slow or amazingly 
rapid growth, to perfection in the qualities, so 
to speak, of the age and the climatic conditions 
— as in Central Asia, Assyria, Nineveh, Babylon — 
or in Egypt, both in the earlier and later dynasties, 
but beyond all in Greece, both in power and with 
rapidity, whether in philosophy, literature, or art. 
The more recent illustrations in Western Europe 



38 

we need not now consider. The point for us to- 
day is this— that in all periods and in all races 
the conscience of men has led them to believe in 
a superior P.ower in the world outside and beyond 
themselves, good or bad, as they viewed it, super- 
human, master of their fate, whom they worshipped, 
feared, and sought to propitiate by prayer and by 
sacrifice. 

All the races practically had, therefore, or have, 
some religion. Some of the religions have come 
to end with the races. Some have disappeared, 
the race surviving. Some continuing have also 
the enthusiasm to propagate their own doctrines 
or Faith, sometimes with gentleness and persuasion 
— often with compulsion, torture, and death on 
refusal. 

Now the only forms of religion which apparently 
can survive are those which are actively mission- 
ary. Of these there are but two outside the 
Christian Faith. It is, however, mournful that the 
millions who live for and in this Faith, are much 
divided among themselves, and injure the progress 
of Christianity thereby, both in fact, and in the 
opinion of the more cultivated of the non-Christian 
people ; Islam, as I am assured on most reliable 
authority, makes converts largely among the lower 



39 



races, especially in Africa, and this notwithstanding 
the exertions by Christian missionaries of many 
denominations, and many forms of organization. 

I am obliged to repeat that, from whatever direc- 
tion we consider the subject before us, it is beset 
with difficulty from the vastness of the questions 
involved. I must, therefore, sum these up, 
though with diffidence. I do so in order to help, 
if I can and may, your own conclusions as 
thoughtful and philosophic students of modern 
science, as to the answer I am to give to Sir 
Grainger Stewart. 

Firstly, are Missionaries necessary or desirable 
for the future of Man, as a duty from the Higher 
races to the Lower ? 

Secondly, should Missionaries of whatever creed 
pay attention to the Physical as well as the 
Spiritual or mental amelioration of inferior races ? 

Thirdly, what are the Religions, if any l , besides 
the Christian Religion, that in fact do attempt 
with any practical result to make converts to 
their own Faith ? 

Fourthly, is there any real ground for my ven- 
turing to bring this question, so vast for your 
generation, before the younger Oxford scientific 

1 Appendix, Note III. 
D 2 



40 

men who will help to guide the future? If so, 
let the grounds be fairly and clearly stated ; and 
the conclusion to be reasonably drawn from them 
by our Society should be decided by you. 

It must be again observed that I am addressing 
the important body of the Junior Scientific Club 
in Oxford, a body such as did not and could not 
exist when first I was in office in Oxford as Lee's 
Reader in Anatomy, in 1845 '< a body who are to 
take and are taking our places, and so will carry 
forward the search after truth in things material 
and things spiritual, which has been so earnest and 
fruitful in our day ; a body, moreover, which has 
founded an annual lectureship (may it be perma- 
nently maintained) named after Robert Boyle, an 
Oxford man no less remarkable as a religious 
thinker than as a minute and devoted scientific 
worker in wide problems of the constitution of 
Nature, and one of the Founders of the Royal 
Society. Though, therefore, I refrain from express- 
ing any direct opinion as to the course which the 
devoted band of missionaries throughout the world 
should adopt in regard to uniting definitely with the 
Medical profession in the promotion of their object, 
the evangelization of the world, I feel not only 
at liberty but bound to express my own senti- 



41 



ments as you have kindly permitted me to-day 
to do. 

It must be admitted that the observations that 
have been hitherto made by me are given, arid 
rightly so, from the point of view of the Medical 
profession, which has to consider all the material 
circumstances that can influence for good, physically, 
socially, morally, the condition of every member of 
the human race, without regard to their religious 
belief, racial or otherwise, except as affecting their 
physical, moral, and social life. 

But this is not the view of the missionary — at 
all events not primarily. The missionary, what- 
ever his creed, desires as missionary to produce 
the assent of those who hold other creeds to his 
own ; and this he attempts in various ways, 
more or less acceptable to those whom he seeks 
to convert. Into this subject I do not now ven- 
ture to enter. 

I would, upon the whole, offer for your consider- 
ation the following observations, both as regards 
yourselves and also as regards Oxford. 

Firstly, it is hardly within propriety that I should 
offer to the great Christian Missionary Societies or 
even to individual promoters of Christian Missions, 
the opinion that the appointed Ministers of the 



42 

Gospel of various denominations ought to have 
a qualifying medical education. 

Secondly, I am not prepared to advise generally 
that fully qualified medical practitioners should also 
be appointed Ministers of the Gospel in whatever 
denomination they think fit. 

Thirdly, that I should not think any individual 
Minister or Medical man acts wrongly in under- 
taking both duties, if he is so disposed. 

Fourthly, that it is very undesirable that the 
respective Ministers should profess to practise 
Medicine and Surgery unless fully qualified in both. 

Fifthly, that no Mission is thoroughly equipped 
in Africa, the Pacific Islands, or many parts of 
Asia and America, which has not a fully qualified 
Medical man attached to it, who earnestly desires 
the success of the objects of the Mission. 

Sixthly, that these statements are not intended 
to imply, either that qualified Medical men may not 
in vast districts such as exist in India, in Asia 
generally, and in Africa, devote themselves to 
special departments bearing on the Public Health, 
whether in Preventive measures or Scientific re- 
search, without engaging in therapeutic. 

Seventhly, that special difficulties exist in each 
of these departments among great Moslem, Hindu 



43 



and Buddhist populations, which do not exist in the 
same way or degree in Africa or the Pacific Islands, 
and some other districts. 

Eighthly, that whatever objection may be taken 
to the following statement, I am strongly of opinion 
that the religious, ethical, and educational work of 
missionaries has a claim on general support before 
the medical department, since it is certain that in 
the present age the prevention and treatment of 
disease will be one of the first practical results of 
a missionary's success on any large scale. 

Ninthly, it must be remembered that medical pro- 
gress, whether preventive or therapeutic, is directly 
educational and indirectly religious. 

My last words must express my earnest hope that 
neither by my actual words, nor by the tone of these 
remarks, have I implied that your chief care as skilled 
and earnest students of the material universe is only 
for the material good of mankind whom you study 
now so much. No ; however, wherever, whenever 
man came to be what he is, his position on our planet 
and in the universe is that of a responsible being, 
responsible intellectually, responsible morally, re- 
sponsible physically, for progress toward the per- 
fection that now is lighted by the one Light which 
Lightens the world. 



44 

The conclusions which I draw from the circum- 
stances as I have briefly laid them before you are 
then generally these. 

i. That I should have committed a wrong had 
I not addressed you on so important a matter. 

2. That I was bound to do so considering the 
earnestness with which you are now pursuing the 
study of Biology, and the vast range of knowledge 
which underlies it, connected as it is with the 
Science of Life on our planet, and including there- 
fore Physics, Chemistry, Evolution, Geology to some 
extent, and every part of so-called Natural History, 
i.e. Zoology, Botany, and the whole history of man, 
his origin and the development of the various races 
to their present condition, social, anatomical, patho- 
logical, with the causes of the degeneration varying 
in different parts of the globe both from past and 
present circumstances : and considering, further, that 
you in this Museum are surrounded in your daily 
life with facts illustrating these things expounded 
to you by your respected teachers in each and all, 
could I do otherwise than lay before you the letter 
from the Institution presided over by the Principal 
of the University and the Professor of Medicine in 
Edinburgh for the education of medical missionaries. 
And why are these words of such overwhelming 



45 



weight? Simply because — as modern medicine is 
now pursued, it deals with the physical condition of 
every human being whatever his race, his govern- 
ment, his moral or intellectual standpoint, or the 
physical circumstances which influence these con- 
ditions. And secondly, because Christianity, for we 
do not now deal with the other great existing re- 
ligions such as Moslem or Buddhism, alone can touch 
the hearts and influence for good or for evil, the 
life of every man born upon earth, howsoever or 
whensoever he has come here. ' Go ye and teach 
all nations,' was the commission by the Founder of 
Christianity. I know not how to condense what 
these things mean for your generation, you who are 
taking our places, while we have been for the last 
half century chiefly hewers of wood and drawers of 
water for you. 

(i) We know the greatness of Sir Grainger's aim, 
the depth of his convictions, the earnestness of his 
work and its great success. (2) We think that under 
many circumstances and in many places medical 
missionaries may do and have done good work for 
man, such as probably could be done by no other 
persons or means. (3) We do not think that the 
two functions of religious teaching and the art and 
science of healing need be combined in the same 



46 



person. (4) We think in many circumstances they 
had better not be so combined. It is well known 
that good Christian medical men and women, both in 
Africa and in India, do by their own lives, their 
sympathy and their beneficence, influence the natives, 
whether persons of the wildest and most ignorant 
character or otherwise, to accept Christianity when 
they perceive what is the effect of Christianity on 
those who are working for them. And this applies 
to many Mahomedans for instance, who resent any 
interference with the religious tenets in which they 
themselves have been brought up. 

It appears to me that there is a great future 
before the young Oxford men who are pursuing 
Science with a view to the practice of medicine in 
one of its threefold divisions in these modern days — 
Preventive, Scientific, Therapeutic. You are all 
aware that since the Museum has grown up in the 
last forty years, the broad view has been taken that 
the scientific foundations of each of these subjects 
should be pursued here, in whatever way may be 
the best possible preparation for the great clinical 
opportunities and teaching of the metropolis. We 
have to enlarge our views in the Crown Jubilee 
year to a sense of the vast responsibility of the 
British Empire, through duties which we owe to the 



47 



300,000,000 of our fellow-subjects in India alone. 
It is to be hoped that many of you, who are now 
pursuing in one form or another the range of 
knowledge to which I have referred, and to which 
I must add especially the great subject summed 
up in the word Anthropology, will take steps 
specially to prepare yourselves for the Indian life 
in one or other department of the medical pro- 
fession. And in this relation you will observe that 
we have near the Museum, the Indian Institute, 
in which through the known abilities and cha- 
racter of the Professors there, you would easily 
in your undergraduate days, or your post-graduate 
period in Oxford, acquire also a knowledge, or at 
all events a foundation of the knowledge, of one 
of the great Eastern languages. The University 
may well consider how to give you the best 
means of preparing yourselves for the noble life 
which is led in India by the servants of the Indian 
Government. It is my duty, however, to say that, 
under the existing States and understanding of 
the Indian Government J and the old Native States 
you could not receive any appointment in the 
Public Department. The University will have 
shortly to erect complete laboratories and the 
1 Appendix, Note VII, 



48 

requisite arrangements for the Kegius Professor of 
Medicine, our eminent friend Professor Burdon- 
Sanderson. Most unfortunately the new laboratories 
which he desired to prepare for every department 
requisite for the study of Medicine and Public 
Health cannot yet be erected owing to want of 
funds. May we not hope that some far-sighted 
person, or some great public body, will give at 
once to the University the means to erect a 
perfect institution, arranged with a special view 
to the needs and difficulties of the Indian Empne. 

To this I will now only add that in the same 
way it is desirable that some of you should look 
forward to the vast field of beneficent work in 
the East, and use the opportunities in Oxford 
which also I hope in your day will be materially 
increased by the ability and knowledge of Professor 
Tylor in the great and important field of modern 
Anthropology', for the study of which General Pitt 
Rivers has already done so much ; and to which 
the French Government forty years ago made a 
very important donation by sending to Christ 
Church a series of unique casts of the South Pacific 
Islanders taken in the voyage of the 'Astrolabe.' 

Of one thing I, at the end of my days, feel 

1 Appendix, Note VI. 



49 



assured, that the Junior Scientific Club, which 
founded the Robert Boyle Lecture, will study in 
a way that could not have been foreseen as 
possible, the problems of Biology which have been 
made known during the Jubilee of our Gracious 
Queen Empress. 



PREFACE TO NOTES. 



It is unnecessary to repeat here the circumstances 
that induced me to attempt an answer to the letter of 
Sir Grainger Stewart which gave rise to this brief 
address, or to repeat the reason why I felt it a duty 
first to address the Junior Scientific Club, as they 
kindly permitted me, and not the University at large. 
But I may, and should, state here the significance of the 
few Notes which follow. Firstly, the subject of the bear- 
ing of modern medicine and of the evangelization of the 
world through Missions is so vast that I could not, even 
if I were able, adequately consider it in one address. 
Secondly, questions affecting the regulations of the Uni- 
versity as such would properly be laid before members of 
Convocation, and to do this in regard to Theological 
teaching would have been, at least, unbecoming in me, 
even if equal to the task. But, thirdly, points were here 
and there, even in this short address, necessarily touched 
upon without explanation, so that it has seemed desirable 
to write a few words upon them in illustration, for 
readers, if such there be. 



APPENDIX. 



NOTE I. 
Letter to Sir Grainger Stewart. 

Dear Sir Grainger Stewart, 

Your letter to me on the subject of ' Edinburgh 
Medical Missions ' has long remained unanswered, be- 
cause I was not sure that it was desirable that I should 
venture to do as you desired, and recommend your 
Institution to the consideration of the University of 
Oxford, either to assist it by contributing to its funds, 
or by sending Oxford trained men, graduates or other- 
wise, to study Medicine within your walls in order to 
become Medical Missionaries. 

You may, I daresay, be aware that Oxford has for 
a long time had a special share in a mission to Central 
Africa, as well as to Calcutta, and moreover that there is 
a Church of England Bishop of Calcutta, who is an Oxford 
man ; and thirdly, that a great many members of the Uni- 
versity have long felt the deepest interest in the whole 
subject of Missions throughout the world. Further, I did 
not consider that it was desirable for me to suggest to the 
Theological Professors and the Departments of the Uni- 
versity, or to the Bishop of the Diocese, that those trained 
as clergy of the Church of England, should devote five 



52 

years to medical study previous to or after their ordina- 
tion. And so after much consideration I determined to 
ask permission of an important Society in Oxford, the 
Junior Scientific Club, to address them on the subject. 
This Society is a very remarkable outcome of the forty 
years during which the Museum has existed. Some years 
after the Museum was built, this Society was constituted, 
and now publishes its annual reports, and has many 
eminent persons reading papers at its meetings. More- 
over, as you probably know, they founded a lectureship 
in the name of Robert Boyle, and themselves engage or 
appoint some eminent person as Lecturer on a scientific 
subject. Now Robert Boyle was, as you are aware, not 
only remarkable as one of the highest scientific inquirers 
of his day and one of the Founders of the Royal Society, 
but also as a theological thinker and writer of no mean 
reputation, and therefore I considered that this Junior 
Scientific Club would like to have your subject brought 
before them, and that it would be a great pleasure to me 
to be permitted to address them. But before I ventured 
to do this, I felt it my duty to make many inquiries' 
in the United States, in India, and in Africa, on the 
desirability or not of recommending our young Oxford 
students, being medical men also, to be missionaries. 
That any mission station is better off in having for its 
own missionary and religious purposes, a good medical 
man rather than to be without one, admits of no 
question, but I found a great difference of opinion as 
to whether the medical men should or should not be 
also missionary Christian teachers. And I am bound 
to add that some persons, both in the States, in 
Africa, and in India, were distinctly of opinion that 



53 

in the great missionary centres the religious teacher 
was already fully occupied, and the practitioner in 
Medicine and Surgery would in any populous district 
be too much engaged in his own serious work to 
thoroughly discharge his duty also as a religious teacher. 
And this especially applied to the large village popula- 
tions in India. 

Under these circumstances I endeavoured to inform 
myself to the best of my ability as to what national, 
or more than national, work our young scientific men, 
especially Honours men preparing for Medicine, could 
do for the good of mankind in friendly alliance with 
the religious teachers in Eastern or African populations, 
especially as regards their coming generations. I con- 
cluded, as you will see in the paper which I enclose 
to you, what it would be best to recommend to them. 
I think, speaking plainly, that a real service would be 
rendered to the British Empire, which now has taken 
charge of 300,000,000 of our fellow-subjects in India 
and Burmah, if they were to prepare themselves in the 
best manner for joining in the already earnest work 
of the Indian Government, by improving the public 
health of the -millions in the densely peopled villages 
throughout that vast country. 

Now it happens that more than forty years ago I had 
written a paper, in which the following words occur : — 

'"L'Hygiene, ou plutot la Civilisation dont elle est une 
face, se resume en deux mots — Moralite, Aisance." In 
other words, to have " competency of living according 
to our condition," and " to possess our hearts right before 
God," are essentials to our physical well-being. But— 

E 



54 

competency of living! Let the Urban, or even the 
Country Eeader, ask himself if all about him have com- 
petent meat and drink for their stomachs and their 
blood ; competent air for their lungs ; competent exer- 
cise — sufficient, and not extreme — for their muscles ; 
competent means of cleanliness for their skins. And 
under the second head : whether they possess their 
hearts right before God ? Let them ask — has the intel- 
lectual, moral, and religious training of himself and 
those about him been such as to ensure, as far as our 
fallen nature allows, such habits of self-control, and 
such sense of duty towards God and his neighbour, as 
affords to the nervous system the chance of a competent 
activity and competent repose ? Alas ! I trow not. So 
far from these words being beside or beyond the mark — 
they hit the eye of it, though they do not touch the 
thousand circles which necessarily surround it. "We 
must learn to feel the bitterness of the evil which 
social life entails on the less honourable members of 
the body politic. The feet, it is true, must tread the 
mire, yet they may be clad ; and the hands may be 
washed and warm, though they be hard from toil. 
It is not simply a wrong to our Fellow Men, if that is 
withheld which they may justly claim : it is sin and 
degradation to the Eulers. 

' To all this England is now awaking. The question 
is— "What is the Eemedy ? How can we apply it ? Are 
we hindering or aiding it? Are even our institutions 
a hindrance or an aid ? 

' Upon the judicious Education of the people depends, 
more than on any other human means, the destiny of 
our coixntry. God be thanked that each year some 



55 

ground is gained in the strife against the social evils 
that often bid fair to overwhelm us. But as long as 
a large part of our population are, in respect of one or 
more of the three great portions of their earthly nature, 
the Physical, Moral, and Intellectual, so much lower 
than they might be, the public opinion, which rules 
in a country such as ours, must be frequently in error ; 
and the greater good must for a time too often yield to 
the lesser. The discussion which is caused by this con- 
flict of opinion is nevertheless one of the most efficient 
means of judicious changes, and of real progress. 

' To aim at, to hope, and to pray for Physical, Moral, 
and Intellectual perfection in any given state, is not 
perhaps the part of the wise ; but to look for a uniform 
progress towards all three in his own country and his 
own place, to strive to add his pebble or his stone to 
the rising edifice, is the duty of every true-hearted 
Christian man. The three cannot be separated. I have 
no more hope of raising a high moral and intellectual 
standard in a state inconsistent with our physical 
necessities, speaking of masses of society, than I have 
of seeing much physical improvement in districts where 
the moral and intellectual life is dormant. God be 
thanked, there is no nook of this country, none where 
our tongue is known, in which the voice of a higher 
culture and a nobler aim may not be heard, uttered 
however feebly, yet in some sort uttered, by our teeming 
press. There is intellectual food enough, — the question 
for us is, by what kind can we be rightly nourished ? ' 

You will, I am sure, acquit me of thinking that I can 
be a real judge of what is the best way of propagating the 

E 2 



50 

Christian faith and the blessings of practical Christianity- 
through the vast population of India. I have a deep 
conviction of the earnestness, wisdom and energy of the 
Governnient of India. I know, from inquiry, enough of 
the difficulties of carrying on education in India in the 
best way, whether it be secular or whether it be Christian, 
without producing irritation, sometimes justly and some- 
times unjustly, among the many learned and devout and 
intellectual people who are met with in divers parts 
of that great Continent. But I do feel in the passage 
which I have just quoted from my own volume on the 
cholera, that the earnest endeavour to improve the 
physical condition of the masses, by the now well under- 
stood arrangements for preserving and promoting the 
public health through prevention of disease, with new and 
scientific methods of curing that which is not prevented, 
is of supreme importance, — and that educated, earnest 
and good University men spread throughout these vast 
districts, well instructed in all these means preventative 
and curative, might be and would be a great blessing 
to the Empire and to the natives themselves. 

All with whom I have communicated, all who know 
the history of mission work in India during the last two 
centuries, know that to raise the character and social 
life of our fellow-subjects, must be a work of time as 
well as a work of great difficulty. That it may be 
carried on by the religious teachers alone is no doubt 
true ; that it may also be carried on by those who 
are both religious teachers and medical practitioners 
I do not doubt, and I am also as certain as I can 
be of any practical matter of the future, that sincerely 
good, well-educated University men spread abroad in 



57 

the practice of medicine and the preservation of the 
public health, will be in the next half century of a value 
to India which cannot be exaggerated. Of course I am 
aware that as time goes on, whatever they do now will, 
under more perfect organization, be more completely 
done hereafter, but I think that Oxford will contribute 
to the progress as well as the present benefit of the 
people, if our men can be induced to join the Indian 
Government as good medical advisers, whether they be 
also missionaries or not. 

I pray you, therefore, to accept the paper which I 
enclose to you as the best answer that I can at present 
give to your letter, to the effect that I earnestly desire 
some of our best young men to look to India as a 
possible place for their life work, after a thorough Uni- 
versity education, leaving them the option of adopting 
or not your wish that they should be missionaries as 
well as medical men of thorough scientific and practical 
training. 

Believe me, 

My dear Sir Grainger Stewart, 

To be very faithfully yours, 

HENEY W. ACLAND. 



58 



NOTE II. 

A striking description of the character of a good 
medical student was drawn by one of the most famous 
medical men of our century, Dr. Latham, the physician 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital sixty years ago. 

' Diseases are not abstractions ; they are modes of 
acting, different from the natural and healthy modes — 
modes of disorganizing, modes of suffering, and modes 
of dying ; and there must be a living, moving, sentient 
body for all this. 

'This body must be your study, and your continual 
care — your active, willing, earnest care. Nothing must 
make you shrink from it. In its weakness and infir- 
mities, in the dishonours of its corruption, you must 
still value it, still stay by it, to mark its hunger and 
thirst, its sleeping and waking, its heat and its cold; 
to hear its complaints, to register its groans. 

' And is it possible to feel an interest in all this ? Ay, 
indeed it is ; a greater, far greater, interest than ever 
painter or sculptor took in the form and beauties of 
health. 

'Whence comes this interest? At first, perhaps, it 
seldom comes naturally; a mere sense of duty must 
engender it; and still, for a while, a mere sense of 
duty must keep it alive. Presently the quick, curious, 



59 

restless spirit of science enlivens it ; and then it becomes 
an excitement, and then a pleasure, and then the de- 
liberate choice of the mind. 

' When the interest of attending the sick has reached 
this point, there arises from it, or has already arisen, 
a ready discernment of diseases, and a skill in the use 
of remedies. And the skill may exalt the interest, and 
the interest may improve the skill, until, in process of 
time, experience forms the consummate practitioner. 

' But does the interest of attending the sick necessarily 
stop here? The question may seem strange. If it has 
led to the readiest discernment and the highest skill, 
and formed the consummate practitioner, why need it 
go further? 

' But what if humanity shall warm it ? Then this in- 
terest, this excitement, this intellectual pleasure is exalted 
into a principle, and invested with a moral motive, and 
passes into the heart. "What if it be carried still further ? 
What if religion should animate it ? Why, then happy 
indeed is that man whose mind, whose moral nature, and 
whose spiritual being, are all harmoniously engaged in 
the daily business of his life ; with whom the same act 
has become his own happiness, a dispensation of mercy 
to his fellow-creatures, and a worship of God.' 



The professional and personal character of Dr. 
Petermere Latham have induced me to quote his 
opinion, in the zenith of an active life, of the desir- 
able and possible character of a ' Medical Student.' He 
lived among them, and for them ; he knew the undesir- 
able character, which early in this century was too often 



60 

attributed to them, in public, and often not unjustly. 
But he knew how wrong was this in fact with many, 
and perhaps with most, of those around him. He knew 
what was the real training for their Christian life, and 
their daily work ; he often saw that, in fact, the life of 
a Medical Student was made perfect thereby. 

I say this at once, and frankly, because I doubt not that 
some earnest promoters of missionary work throughout 
the world will blame me for not having urged the young 
scientific men of Oxford to be first of all Missionaries, 
instead of pressing them to devote themselves primarily 
to the care of the Public Health of the 300,000,000 of 
our fellow-subjects in India, leaving each individually to 
decide whether he will add to this work, so great and so 
pressing, for the physical, moral, and social elevation of 
those millions committed to the care of the British 
Empire. 

If I be so blamed, my conclusions, not my intentions, 
should be judged. How this can be will partly appear 
in the Notes which follow. It must be borne in mind 
that I addressed my younger friends entirely on Scien- 
tific Life, after scientific training as a Physician, not as 
a Theologian. The latter would have involved me in 
needless controversy on the organization of the Church 
throughout the world, past, present, and future. For this 
I was unequal, and mischief, not good, might have been 
the result. 

That noble spirit, but lately martyred, Pilkington, 
talking over this very subject with me in Oxford, but 
two years since, said with emphasis I can never forget, 
! We expect in our generation to witness the evangeliza- 
tion of the whole world.' His great nature suggested to 



61 

me no single way of compassing this end. He lived, as 
we all now know, for and with the wild dwellers in 
Uganda, loving them, educating them, as they loved him 
and were educated by him. May his brief life be written 
for our instruction and example. I dwell here no longer 
on this topic further than to say, that men such as 
Latham describes as true students or practitioners of 
Medicine may, if they so will, follow apostolic example 
of healing and preventing the disease of millions of 
ignorant, prejudiced natives, downtrodden by caste and 
by idolatry, and so promote the great and definite work 
of" teaching Christianity, in whatever branch of the 
Church throughout the world they may select. 



62 

NOTE III. 

Comparative Theology. 

No. i. 

In the Quarterly American Journal of Theology, 
April, 1897, is an important paper which bears on 
the conditions that are necessary for a Universal 
Religion. I refer to it because it appears to me to 
state with brevity what a profound subject, historical, 
racial, philosophical, and missionary effort in India is 
dealing with in the present clay. It is briefly this, 
that any religion to be true must be such as would 
appeal to all men of every race and in any period 
of its evolution. Professor Barrow states simply that 
there is but one known Religion that fulfils these con- 
ditions, viz. the Religion of Christ. He shows that 
there are but two other known Religions which can be 
held to have any effective properties for the training 
of humanity, viz. Islam and Buddhism. In clear, pre- 
cise language he gives the reasons for these conclusions. 
The discussion may shock some persons. But in the 
present state of human knowledge, whether scientific 
or theological, all medical men who desire, being 
Christians, to live as missionaries of the Gospel, must 
study the subject at least enough not to offend and repel 
by their ignorance, educated and devout persons, especially 
well-known Hindoos in India. 



63 

It may seem strange to the reader that immediately- 
after the description of a medical student, whether he be 
a missionary or not, there should follow a note on a 
subject so vast as that of Comparative Theology, which 
speaking generally, is quite remote from the idea of the 
pure, simple life of the good medical student. The reason 
is obvious. In the present state of Physical Science the 
conception of the foundation and character of theological 
knowledge, and of science and faith, is rapidly becoming 
changed. Fifty years ago, there was in Oxford, with some 
minds, absolute division between the two last. Many at 
that time thought there was no connexion between the 
study of Physical Science and the study of Scripture. 
The progress of knowledge, as may be seen, through the 
works issued by the Christian Knowledge Society alone, 
shows that strong minds often feel that the study of 
Eevelation, the History of non-Christian Religions and 
philosophical works written ages before the coming of 
our Lord, are all necessary for right understanding of 
the nature and character of the human mind, and of its 
most profound and highest results. 

I allude to it, only in relation to the subject of my 
address to the young science students, because having 
regard to the evolution of Philosophic Thought in their 
day, if they enter into its details as we now know it, 
many would be drawn aside by historical and speculative 
Philosophy from the blessed work of caring for the 
moral and physical well-being of the many millions of 
villagers. 



64 

No. 2. 
Foundation in India of a Lectureship on the Relations 
of Christianity and the other Religions, by Mrs. Caroline 
E. Haskell of Chicago. 

The subject has become through this foundation of 
such great importance that I quote part of the preface 
of the first Lecturer, and the effects of the earliest 
Lectureship on the whole of India. 

' The Indian Lectureship was fortunate in its con- 
nexion with a movement of fraternity and conciliation 
which deeply touched the heart of India. After the 
work which I was permitted to inaugurate after six 
thousand miles of travel, in which I crossed the Indian 
peninsula five times, delivering more than one hundred 
and ten lectures and addresses, meeting hundreds of 
missionaries and Christian teachers, and also many hun- 
dreds of non-Christian friends, and speaking to thousands 
of restless and inquisitive youths, my estimate of the 
possible usefulness of the Lectureship, especially when 
it is held in abler hands than mine, has been augmented. 
If Christian lectureships are useful in Oxford, Edinburgh 
and New York, they may become much more useful in 
a country like India, where the foundations of rational 
Christian faith must be laid. I have long believed in 
Christian education as a main factor in India's evange- 
lization. The Lectureship comes in as a supplement to 
this force. It brings a fresh speaker to the inquiring and 
changing Indian life, and it secures for him a sympa- 
thetic hearing. Furthermore, well-known and scholarly 
men going to India from Europe or America are sure to 
gain larger audiences than those already resident in India, 



05 

and returning to their own lands after a few months of 
contact with the wondrous life of the East, they will be 
able to speak with more interest and personal knowledge 
in regard to the progress and the needs of Christ's 
Kingdom. 

' The subject which I selected for this inaugurating 
series of lectures was chosen with several objects in view. 
I desired to fasten attention on the supreme and dis- 
tinctive truths which center in Christ. It is certain that 
many educated Hindus who know something of Christi- 
anity misconceive it. They regard as supreme and vital 
what is only secondary and non-essential. Believing 
that the spirit and substance of the Christian religion are 
found in the Christ of the Gospels, I made my most 
earnest effort to concentrate upon Him the constant 
attention of my hearers, whether I met them in the 
college halls of Calcutta or in the Town Hall of Lahore, 
whether on the Malabar coast or where the long waves 
dash on the stormy shores of Coromandel. 

' My second purpose was to lodge in the Hindu mind 
our conviction that Christianity is essentially a universal 
religion, divinely adapted to the spiritual needs of each 
man, whatever his race, rank or nation. The sensitive 
Hindu, who for long ages has scarcely looked beyond his 
own beloved Aryavarta, is not easily disposed to favor 
the claim that anything outside of India is mighty 
enough to take up and include his own land, with its 
great religious philosophies and its three thousand years 
of intellectual history. Christianity, although it had 
lingered since the fourth century on the West Coast in 
the Syrian Church, and although it had touched Southern 
India in the apostolic labors of Xavier, appeared to the 



66 

Hindu niind chiefly as the religion of his English con- 
querors. Then he came to regard it as the faith belonging 
in various forms to the "Western world of railroads and 
iron steamers, the world of fire-arms and materialistic 
science. He saw clearly some of the unlovely aspects of 
Christendom, and the name Christian had none of the 
attractiveness for him which it possesses for Europeans 
and Americans. Flattered by the praises, sometimes 
indiscriminate, of Western scholars, who unearthed for 
him his own sacred literature, he began to think that he 
possessed something already which rendered Christianity, 
at least for him, unnecessary. Of late years, during the 
so-called Hindu revival, he has been strengthened in his 
feeling that Hinduism, reformed and purified, is good 
enough for his people, and indeed possesses a glory which 
does not belong to the Christian Gospel. It was, there- 
fore, my effort to show that Christianity, judged by any 
tests which bring out its true nature, is the universal 
religion. The earnest proclamation of the essential 
universality of the Christian faith was, of course, not 
altogether acceptable to the proud and isolated Hindu 
spirit. It has been the habit of that spirit in recent 
years to claim for Hinduism every excellence claimed 
by other religions. My persistent advocacy of Christ's 
universal claims, and my insistence that Christianity is 
a missionary religion, seeking after the whole world with 
its message of life and salvation, stirred up not a little 
antagonism. But I was not so much surprised at this as 
at the general kindness, courtesy, patience and attention 
with which my message was received. 

' The subject and treatment of my lectures were deter- 
mined by another consideration and purpose, the desire 



67 

to furnish a convenient, comprehensive and readable 
summary of Christian Evidences in the light of com- 
parative study. The Indians are a reading people, and 
India is the country of cheap printing. And while there 
are many books of Christian Evidences, and valuable 
works in which Christianity and Hinduism are com- 
pared, I do not know that India is familiar with any 
volume wherein the supremacy of Christianity is con- 
tinuously set forth, as compared not only with Hinduism, 
but with the other competing religions. 

' It does not seem appropriate that I should fill this 
preface with the names of the multitude of friends, who, 
in America, Great Britain, France, Germany, Egypt, 
India, Japan and the Hawaiian Islands, contributed, in 
one way or another, to the pleasure and interest of my 
world-pilgrimage, and to whatever success may have 
belonged to my undertaking. 

' The welcome and hospitality with which the Christian 
missionaries in India and Japan received us into their 
homes were unspeakably kind, and one of my deepest 
joys in recalling my busy months in the Orient is their 
constant testimony that my mission was in some measure 
a help and encouragement to their work. 

' I can wish for my successors in the Indian Lecture- 
ship no more interesting experiences than those which 
made my recent visit to the Land of the Vedas a chief 
event in my life. However slight a contribution to the 
religious discussions of our times this book may be 
deemed, it must be evident that the conception of 
Christianity herein embodied is fast coming to the 
front, and will more and more absorb the attention of 
the friends and foes of the Christian religion. In this 



68 

conception will be found the abiding motives of Christian 
missionary effort. I saw India in a year of plague and 
famine, and I hope that the readers of this volume, both 
in the East and the West, may be helped by it to dis- 
cover anew or for the first time that a Divine Physician 
stands ready to heal the dreadful plague of sin, and that 
the famine of the soul may be removed by Him who still 
says, " I am the Bread of Life." ' 

Professor Barrows quotes a striking passage from the 
greatest authority on Eastern philosophy of all periods, 
the Eight Hon. Prof. Max Miiller. See Hibbert Lectures, 
1878, pp. 337-8. 

No. 3. 

The clergyman of a large rural parish, earnestly devoted 
to his duty for fifty years, lately told me that in his youth, 
being interested in missionaries to the Heathen, he was 
startled by finding the following passage in the course of 
his reading, expressing the conception of God in non- 
Christian natives of India : — 

' Perfect Truth ; perfect Happiness. "Without equal, im- 
mortal, absolute unity, whom neither speech can describe, 
nor mind comprehend, all pervading, all transcending, 
delighted with his own boundless intelligence, not limited 
by space or time ; without feet, moving swiftly ; without 
hands, grasping all worlds ; without eyes, all surveying ; 
without ears, all hearing ; without an intelligent guide, 
understanding all ; without cause, the first of all causes ; 
all ruling ; all powerful. The Creator, Preserver, Trans- 
former of all things. Such is the great One.'— Sir "W. 
Jones, quoted by Elphinstone, p. 38. 



NOTE IV. 

Oxford, May 6, 1874. 

My dear Dk. Acland, 

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
has under its consideration a proposition for establishing 
a few Missionary Scholarships at the Universities, in the 
hope of being able to recruit its staff of missionaries — 
especially in India and the East — with a few repre- 
sentatives of English University training annually. The 
proposition — so far as it has taken a definite shape as 
yet — is to give annually a scholarship worth, say, £80 
a year, tenable for four years, to some undergraduate 
of suitable qualifications, who has completed his first 
year of study at the University, on the understanding 
that he shall combine the study of medicine with the 
ordinary course of University studies, so that he may 
be able to make himself useful in the mission field in 
a twofold capacity, both by teaching religion and by 
alleviating suffering. 

Will you be so kind as to give me, for the Society's 
information, the benefit of your opinion on the following 
points ? 

I. Would it be possible for a young man to combine 
with the ordinary University course, such an amount 

F 



70 

of medical study as would enable him, within the period 
for which the scholarship is to be tenable, not only to 
take a degree in Arts, but also to qualify himself for 
a medical degree or diploma? 

2. If you should think it impossible for him to take 
both a degree in Arts and a degree or diploma in Medi- 
cine, within the period, would it be possible to provide 
him such a course of medical study, and to subject him 
to such an examination as would enable him, without 
taking a medical degree or diploma, to acquire such an 
amount of knowledge of the practice of medicine as 
would generally suffice for the circumstances in which 
a missionary is likely to be placed ? 

3. Does Oxford at present possess the facilities neces- 
sary for enabling men to combine a course of study in 
Medicine with the ordinary course of study in Arts to 
the extent indicated in the first of these questions, or 
to the extent indicated in the second ? 

4. Can you favour me with any suggestion as to what 
appears to you the best mode of carrying into effect the 
object the Society has in view? 

I am, 

Yours very faithfully, 

R. CALDWELL. 



The following out of the suggestion that the study of 
medicine at the University should be combined with 
preparation for work in the Mission field, is a question 
partly of power, partly of time, and partly of ecclesiastical 
administration. 



71 

I have ample evidence that some of our very best 
Missionaries, I do not name them personally, think they 
had better not be combined, but it is practically certain 
that no Mission Station can be, especially in Africa, 
thoroughly useful without a capable and good man 
attached to it as a really efficient Surgeon. 

To this remark must be added that it is most desir- 
able that all Missionaries should have some useful Medical 
Education, such as is provided on many of our railway 
lines, and in many of the departments of our police force, 
under the head of First Aid to the Sick and Wounded. 

This remark may be made concerning very many of 
the clergy in our rural parishes. For full information on 
this subject, it is only necessary to consult the Living- 
stone College in the East of London, under the able 
management of Dr. Harford Battersby. 



F 2 



72 



NOTE V. 

It need hardly be remarked here that there have been 
few more remarkable changes in the social arrangements 
connected with practical medicine, than the important 
results and great advantage which has come to pass 
through the study and practice of medicine in all its 
departments by medical women. It is just fifty years 
since the first medical graduate who received a diploma, 
being an educated woman, was entered on the Medical 
Register. The subject was then treated first with 
ridicule, and for a long time with opposition. The 
first English lady who had an English diploma followed 
a few years after. Since then the lady medical practi- 
tioners are numerous. Their services in India have been 
invaluable ; several have engaged in the terrible plague 
of Bombay, and saved lives where, and when, no man 
practitioner would be admitted. 

One of the results of this has been, to my knowledge, 
to draw the attention of natives, Mussulmen and Hindoos, 
to the nature and qualities of a true Christian character. 
It was repeated to me from Bombay that a Parsee said, 
' See what an English lady will do, leave her happy house 
and home in England, and daily risk her life for our 
sakes, impelled thereto by her religious belief and love 
of Christ.' 



78 

But this is not all, hundreds of women trained in the 
Zenanas do the same, and there is perhaps no nobler 
result of broad Christian convictions, and large view of 
national duty, than the establishment by the Marchioness 
of Dufferin and Ava, of hundreds of nurses, thoroughly 
trained and trustworthy, to give their lives to the poor 
women and children of India, in towns, in hospitals, 
dispensaries and villages. 

It is my conviction, from what I have heard directly 
and indirectly from Natives, that well-educated English 
University men, trained as proposed in the Address, 
would be of incalculable service, just as are the educated 
medical women among the poorer and wholly ignorant 
villagers on whose behalf they would work, perhaps with 
Native Doctors, avoiding as far as possible all that offends 
the religious principles of the villagers, on which an in- 
teresting volume by Mr. Pandian on ' Indian Village 
Folk ' may be consulted. 



74 



The following deserves the most serious attention. 

NOTE VI. 

On the Study of Anthropology. 

Oxford, May 30, 1898. 
My deab Acland, 

In the view you take in your lecture of the motive 
of Medical Education, I am entirely with you. I desire, 
as you do, that in Oxford the study of Nature shoidd be 
cultivated — as other branches of knowledge have for so 
long been pursued — for the good of all, at home, abroad, 
and in our colonies ; and particularly that the science of 
man, past and present, bodily and mental, should be ad- 
vanced and perfected here for this purpose. 

In what you say of the missionary element in medicine, 
you do not say too much. "We both of us know that there 
are men in our profession whose choice of medicine as 
a life-occupation has been actuated neither by the desire 
for professional eminence, nor even by the love of science, 
but simply because to the physician doors of usefulness 
are open which are closed to others. Oxford, I venture 
to think, produces more such men than other schools. If 
this is so, it affords a reason which would be sufficient, if 
there were no other, for striving to complete in the best 
possible way the work she has begun for the organization 
of Medical Study. 

I am, my dear Acland, 

Yours very truly, 

W. BUEDON-SANDERSON. 



75 

' In the scientific study of Religion, which now shows 
signs of becoming for many a year an engrossing subject 
of the world's thought, the decision must not rest with 
a council in which the theologian, the metaphysician, 
the biologist, the physicist, exclusively take part. The 
historian and the ethnographer must be called upon to 
show the hereditary standing of each opinion and practice, 
and their inquiry must go back as far as antiquity or 
savagery can show a vestige, for there seems no human 
thought so primitive as to have lost its bearing on our 
own thought, nor so ancient as to have broken its con- 
nexion with our own life.'— Tylors Primitive Culture, 
vol. ii, p. 452. 



Ethnological Department 

(Pitt Rivers Collection), 

University Museum, Oxford. 

March 28, 189S. 



My dear Sir Henry, 

Very many thanks for your letter. I am very 
glad that your address to the Junior Scientific Club is 
to be published, and shall look forward greatly to its 
perusal. I am sure that I need not emphasize to you, 
who have followed my work so long, my belief in the 
great importance of a careful study of Man as he exists 
under different conditions both physical and cultural. 
It is almost incredible to me that this subject should 
hitherto have received so little encouragement in this 
country Apart from the interest attaching to a com- 
parative study of our own species, the highest and most 



76 

specialized of the Animal Kingdom, there is the ever 
present and highly practical question of its national 
importance to Great Britain, whose interests extend so 
far afield, and whose colonies and dependencies embrace 
so numerous and so very varied a portion of the human 
race. A general survey of the various races of man still 
existing, points to the fact that many of the more lowly 
conditions of culture belong to more or less remote 
antiquity, that they are survivals from different early 
stages in the general history of human progress, survivals 
well worth studying, if alone with a view to elucidating 
the fiast history of the higher civilizations, and to filling 
in gaps in the Archaeological record by means of ob- 
servation of such primitive conditions as have, for various 
reasons, persisted in different regions. The present 
illuminates the past. A proper study, too, of native 
customs and beliefs, and of the environments which have 
dictated them, must surely be of the utmost value to 
all who have to deal, whether officially or otherwise, 
with races living under different conditions to our own. 
It would have helped to prevent many absurd blunders, 
many acts of injustice, which have too often darkened 
our administrative and other dealings with primitive 
peoples. A proper investigation of native life requires 
special training, and, perhaps, special gifts. The medical 
man, with his scientific, and especially his biological 
training, has already acquired many of the qualifications 
which fit him to undertake scientific investigation of the 
Biological and Psychological problems involved in the 
comparative study of Man. Much valuable ethnological 
work has already been done by medical men, and we may 
well look for further help to those whose pursuits, whether 



77 

associated with missionary work or not, take tkem among 
native races. Tkere is one point upon wkick too muck 
stress cannot be laid, and tkat is, tkat tke ever increasing 
contact between civilized and relatively uncivilized 
peoples is rapidly altering tke normal ckaracteristics of 
tke latter, witk good or witk bad effect, too often, I fear, 
witk tke latter; and, in consequence, it is desirable to 
acquire all possible information tcithout delay, ere it 
becomes too late, Many opportunities kave already 
been lost, and lost irretrievably ; let us make tke most 
of tkose wkick yet remain, and keenly prosecute inquiry, 
not only for tke advancement of science, but also for tke 
better understanding of tke races of lower culture witk 
wkom we kave to deal, a wider knowledge of wkom will 
generate a more just, a more sympatketic, and kence, 
a more successful treatment. 

"Witk kindest regards, 

I am always, 

Yours very sincerely, 

HENRY BALFOUR. 



7S 

The following interesting letters from two such noble 
men as Sir Bartle Frere and Bishop Steere, early in the 
evolution of the question, will be read with interest : — 

From Sir Bartle Frere. 

Off Brava, near the Line, 
East Coast of Africa, 

March 30, 1873. 
My dear Acland, 

I do not know whether you remember asking me 
to tell you what the Universities could do towards the 
work I was sent to ? I promised to inquire, and here is 
the result of one question I put to Dr. Steere, who is in 
charge of the Universities Mission at Zanzibar. I found 
the Mission in a state which must have caused pain and 
anxiety to all its friends. You may remember how it 
started well with Bishop Mackenzie, aided by Livingstone, 
intending to fix its head-quarters somewhere in the high 
lands south of Rovuma and north of the Zambesi. How 
it met a serious check in the death of some of the best 
missionaries and of the excellent bishop. How this lead 
his successor, Bishop Tozer, to change his plans, and to 
move his head-quarters to Zanzibar, a step which was 
much condemned by some of the original friends of the 
Mission, not I think without reason ; but Bishop Tozer's 
plan, if not the best, was certainly the next best thing 
to be done, and he and his fellow-labourers have accom- 
plished a great work. They have made good a footing in 
the commercial centre of East Africa, they have trained 
many Africans to be useful members of the Church, but, 
above all, they have attacked the languages, and Dr. 
Steere, by his study of Swahili, the French of East 
Africa, and of many cognate dialects, and by publishing 



79 

the results of his study, has greatly smoothed the path 
for future missionaries. He has also started a verna- 
cular press, and prints much excellent matter in native 
languages, but in Roman type, which he finds better 
suited to these tongues than Arabic. But the Mission 
seems in danger of dying for want of men, and the 
Universities might greatly aid in the ways Steere points 
out in this paper, or in any other ways in which they 
could send out good religious churchmen. Bishop Tozer 
has been prostrated by a threatening of paralysis or 
softening of the brain, and has resigned the See, and 
I hope soon a successor will be appointed ; for though I 
trust Bishop Tozer may recover, so as to live long and 
usefully in a cold climate, he can never return to this 
exhausting heat. His successor will be sadly in want of 
men, and I think you might very effectually aid him at 
Oxford. The climate is really no worse than that of 
Malabar or Madras (N.B. we have just tried the three 
hottest months), but it is exhausting, and no man ought 
to stay without a change. The merchants, always 
sufficiently busy and interested, not over done either 
way, living well and taking sufficient and not too much 
exercise, and an occasional voyage to Europe, rarely get 
ill, and seem never to die ; but all others, especially 
sailors and missionaries, seem to make just the same 
mistakes from which people suffer in India, and most 
of them set both the climate and all your sanitary rules 
at defiance. The missionaries generally offending by 
overwork, sedentary habits, insufficient and unsuitable 
food &c If you could send them a man who has 
attended your lectures, and read your writings on 
sanitation, he would be invaluable, and he might fill 



80 

any department of your Museum, and make an European 
reputation in any branch of physical science. There 
have been a few men of science, e.g. Playfair in fishes, 
Kirk in botany, and Kurten in many branches ; but 
they have been confined to special localities, and have 
touched but the fringe of the matter, as an East African 
subject. At the Zanzibar Mission they would find a good 
centre of operations, and a home, with educated friends 
in Steere and the Consul, and I hope in the Bishop 
and his clergy, when they come out. A regular monthly 
steamer to England, India, and the Cape, and easy 
communication with the Seychelles, Madagascar, &c. 
I cannot think of any place where a young man fond 
of physical science and anxious to aid in Christianity 
and civilizing a fourth of the human race, could reap 
so much fruit for a few years of labour. 

There is another way in which the Universities could 
help, and that is by doing something to aid Dr. Steere 
both in his philological and printing work. I look on 
what he has done, in these two branches, as worth all 
that has been spent on the Mission, but it is far beyond 
any one man's strength to examine the languages, reduce 
them to writing, and print them for half a continent, 
and there is room here for half-a-dozen Max Mullers, 
and two or three Clarendon Presses, before the work 
Steere has undertaken can be finished. I had no idea, 
till I came here, of the vast populations, the variety of 
dialects, the traces of old culture and civilization, and 
instructive traditions and superstitions, which abound, 
about which scarcely a line had been written twenty 
years ago, and where anything like indigenous literature 
is wholly wanting; all is oral. 



81 

An Arabic scholar might find an interesting field for 
inquiry regarding the Arab dynasties who held empire 
on these coasts before the Portuguese; they belonged 
generally to the south and east coasts of Arabia, but 
some came from Persia and Shiraz, and all left traces 
of a great and civilizing colonization, in the people and 
language of the coasts, till it was blotted out by the 
Portuguese blight. A missionary who began by devoting 
some years to study Arabic thoroughly, would find an 
opening to the descendants of the Arab immigrants 
which can never be enjoyed by any one who begins 
talking to them in the barbaric tongues of the African 
races. 

I often look forward to a few more days with you at 
Oxford, when I might tell you much about things which 
I think will interest you of this coast ; but just now I can 
only add my kindest regards to Mrs. Acland and to 
Angy, who I hope is better, and to any of your family 
who are within reach, and beg you to pardon this scrawl, 
and set it down to the heat of the Line and the rolling 
of the ' Enchantress,' and to believe me, 

Ever, my dear Acland, 

Affectionately yours, 

H. B. E. FREEE. 



From Bishop Steere. 

Zanzibar, January 22, 1873. 
My dear Sir, 

When you ask what the University might do 
specially for the Mission, one is inclined at first to say 



82 

everything, men, money, and interest are our great 
wants. I do not think that we want so much single 
men who will devote their lives to the one work of 
missions in East Africa, as we do a general flow of 
men backward and forward ; so that a knowledge of the 
country and its people may be diffused at home, and 
fresh minds apply themselves continually to the great 
problems which have to be solved. There is a narrow- 
ness of view which can scarcely be avoided by one 
whose whole life is spent in one kind of work, and 
that in one special locality. Missions are often spoken 
of as though they were a thing apart, altogether unlike 
home work. For myself, I do not iinderstand that 
anything more requires to be done for the heathen than 
had to be done for each generation of Englishmen. 
Men are not born Christians ; they have no instinctive 
knowledge of the truth ; we see among the heathen 
merely what man without the Church of God has come 
to be, and what he is always tending to even in what 
we fondly call Christian countries. One great value of 
missions, both at home and abroad, is that they compel 
men to distinguish between the Christianity which is 
a mere swimming with the stream, and that which 
is really a thankful use of the gifts and grace of God. 
I think every parish priest would be the better for 
some actual knowledge of heathenism. If such ideas 
as these could be well put forward at the University, 
they would naturally lead to what I should like our 
friends there to undertake, and that is, a systematic 
recommendation to the young men who year by year 
are looking to Holy Orders as their vocation, that they 
should spend a year or two at the very beginning of 



83 

their course in the work of some mission ; and as we 
are here, we should wish that it might be ours. There 
is, or might be, an interval of a year or two between 
the degree and Ordination, which could well be spent 
in work here, perhaps in something like minor orders. 
Young men travel over the world for the sake of 
knowing what it is like: it would be better worth 
while to study one set of people thoroughly, as a mis- 
sionary must. I think that it is folly to ask a man in 
England, Will you devote yourself to mission work 
in East Africa? when his ideas about East Africa are 
probably a mere mass of errors, and those about mission 
work not much better. Let him come for a year or 
two and see what it all means ; the time would be 
usefully employed for himself as well as for the Mission, 
and no one need lament over his going as though he 
were running unusual risks or permanently severing 
any home-ties whatever. If he finds his vocation here, 
well for him and for us. If he does not, well for him 
and for us also. He will have gained an insight into 
his own capacities as well as into our work. He will 
diffuse correct ideas at home, and we shall have the 
benefit of his independent and intelligent criticism, 
a thing which missions generally are very much in 
want of. I do not think there would be much difficulty 
in procuring Deacon's Orders in England for any one 
coming out here, upon the understanding that he should 
be cordially received at home whenever he returned, 
bringing good testimonials from the missionary bishop. 
First, then, I would ask our friends to take care that 
no one should go to Ordination from the University 
without having the opportunity of spending a year or 



84 

two with us distinctly offered to him, and its acceptance 
if necessary pressed upon him by such arguments as 
ought to have most weight in each particular case. 

Another special thing the University might do for us 
would be to take care that our Native College should 
be well supplied with good teachers. This is a most 
necessary thing, and one for which the University might 
well make itself responsible. Let it be understood that 
the University Committee undertakes to keep the Col- 
lege supplied with two or three really valuable men, 
not necessarily any one of them to stay any great length 
of time, but that matters may be so arranged that each 
one may be relieved when he desires to return. Now 
that we have a monthly mail, passages can be obtained 
so as to hit exactly the time when the vacancy will 
occur ; and the committee will, of course, be in corre- 
spondence with its nominees, and will always know how 
they are succeeding, and when they will be likely to 
require a change. I hope that by the help of such men 
as the University could well spare us for a time, our 
investigations into the languages, traditions, opinions 
and affinities of the tribes to which we minister, may 
be conducted in a more complete and scholarly manner 
than one could possibly expect from men wholly and 
merely missionaries. 

If these proposals seem unpractical, the University 
Committee might very well, in addition to them, 
usefully find and maintain one or more missionaries 
whose work would be then specially the work of the 
University, and might excite a personal interest which 
sometimes proves very valuable. I have spoken chiefly 
about men, because it is exactly in the presence of men 



85 

engaged in studies congenial to Church work that our 
Universities consist. I have no fear that if men be 
forthcoming anything else will long be wanting. 

I am, 

Yours very obediently, 

(Signed) EDWARD STEERE. 



The wide range and great importance of the study in 
Oxford of the scientific ground-work of Public Health in 
every part of the world and among all races was foreseen 
by the Radcliffe Trustees in relation to the Radcliffe 
Library very many years ago. 

This will be seen by the folloicing extract from the Preface 
to Radcliffe Library Catalogue Appendix, 1872. 

' The following works have, through the friendly aid of 
the Duke of Argyll, the Marquis of Salisbury, Sir Bartle 
Frere, and Mr. Clements Markham, been presented to 
the Library by the India Office, out of the mass of 
documents which bear on the recent or present social 
condition of India. 

'The Librarian has had in contemplation to form a 
branch of the Library specially bearing on Comparative 
National Health l . The works on India were intended 
to form a part of such series. To these will be gradually 

1 See Report to the Radcliffe Trustees for 1872, p. 7, and ' National 
Health ' Address given before the Royal College of Physicians in 
London, 1871 ; 'Health,' Address delivered at the Social Congress at 
Plymouth, 1873. 



86 

added Health Reports of the United States, Germany, 
France, and all countries which contribute to this now 
extensive branch of Literature and Science. It is right, 
however, to observe that the formation of a Catalogue 
raisonne of works illustrating Comparative National 
Health is hardly j r et possible. The data are not even 
now available for defining the Science of Comparative 
National Health. It has been described as the science 
" which has reference to that health which is affected by 
the circumstances of the whole world, which seeks to 
compare one nation with another, to ask why one people 
is more or less healthy ; one more or less long lived ; 
which aims at presenting to the mind a correct concep- 
tion of the circumstances, and the fluctuations in the 
health of the whole of mankind 1 ." The factors indeed 
are derived from subjects of which some are as yet 
incomplete, as Meteorology, Physical Geography, Eth- 
nology, Laws of Descent, of Ascent, of Species, and many 
Departments of Sociology — as Education, Crime, Refor- 
mation, Value of Human Life as Life, Poor Law, and the 
intermixture of various Races. The literature therefore 
will long be heterogeneous and incomplete. Its limits 
cannot be rigorously defined. 

' It is to be hoped that the missionary zeal of Oxford 
will eventually aid this Library in collecting such litera- 
ture as specially illustrates the Material and Intellectual 
growth of stationary or progressive Races. The time is 
not yet come when the harmony between the Material 
and Spiritual Nature of Man is so appreciated as to bring 
the Scientific and the Missionary temper into intimate 

1 'Health,' ib. 1873, p. 15. 



87 

union. But the labours of Max Miiller, the Eev. Dr. 
Legge, Professor Rolleston, and others, may yet convince 
us m Oxford, that Man is only to be scientifically under- 
stood when studied by aid of all the lights which can be 
brought to bear on the history of his physical Develop- 
ment and moral Ascent.' 

The importance of this has been displayed in the 
Radcliffe Library, and frequently pointed out to foreign 
visitors by a conspicuous inscription of the words ' Com- 
parative National Health ' on the gallery containing 
these works. 



NOTE VII. 

Foe the sake of members of the University, it is to be 
observed that regulations for the practice of Medicine 
in India, whether in the Public Health Department, 
the Research Department, or in the practice of Medicine 
and Surgery, or as Medical Missionaries, can be ascer- 
tained on application to the Under Secretary of State, 
India Office, London. 



a 2 



88 



NOTE VIII. 



Since the above was in type I have received a letter 
froru a highly esteemed and devout minister of our 
Church, expressing in general terms his regret that I 
do not appear to him to insist sufficiently upon the 
far greater importance of missionary work to medical, 
whether scientific, preventive, or curative. If this be 
the case, it depends upon the want of clearness in my 
Address. I have certainly stated in more than one pas- 
sage the first irirportance of the improvement in the 
education of the ignorant and heathen races for the 
express purpose of their leading more religious lives. 
In my quotations from, and references to, Professor 
Barrows, I have further shown, in the most distinct and 
definite manner, that it is quite clear to those who have 
studied the subject with seriousness, either as regards 
Faith or Physiology, that there is but one religion 
known to man which will stand the test of fitness for 
the training of all races to be good members of society, 
and individually worthy of the human nature, and that 
is, Christianity. Accordingly, looking with the utmost 
care at the whole subject of the relation of Medical to 
Missionary work, it seems to me that to bring the 
masses of ignorant or idolatrous heathen, whether in 
India or elsewhere, into Christendom, is perhaps the 
highest subject to which a wise, capable, and earnest 
man can devote himself for the benefit of mankind. 

It must be remembered I have pointed out that 
there is the administrative side to be considered as 



89 

well as the scientific and practical. If, in the judge- 
ment of the noble Government of India, under the 
guidance of our great Queen Empress and her advisers 
at home, it be found necessary and desirable to have 
a body of Christian educated medical men to improve 
the physical condition of the sickly, immoral and idol- 
atrous natives, and to be engaged in medicine alone — 
not in missionary work, I cannot withdraw my desire 
that this ancient University should, in the coming time, 
induce some of her best anthropologists and cultivated 
medical men to work, whether for prevention or cure, 
in the Public Health Department of India. The Univer- 
sity will, in the way I have thus endeavoured to point 
out, confer a benefit upon England, the University, and 
the Empire. It should be observed by this earnest- 
minded minister, that in the Address I explained it 
would be wholly optional to each man going to serve 
in India in the medical capacity whether he should 
also act as a missionary, primarily or otherwise. I 
happen to know that cultivated Hindoos and other 
natives have taken great offence when they discovered 
that some who professed to attend the natives for 
purely medical, or healing, or preventive purposes, did 
so in order to attack the religion earnestly held by 
them and their forefathers. The Rev. Mr. Gill, a 
well-known and distinguished missionary in Calcutta, 
quotes, in a remarkable speech which he made at the 
great meeting of the Church Missionary Society in May 
this year, a passage which has before been recorded, 
showing that some cultivated natives are distressed 
by our purely scientific education. 'It has,' they 
say, ' made our children irreligious, atheistic, agnostic. 



90 

You say you have given them light, but your light is 
•worse than darkness. We do not thank you for it. 
Better far that our children should remain ignorant of 
your science, and retain the simple faith of their an- 
cestors, than that they should now, at the end of the 
day, but turn their backs upon religion and morality 
as mere rags and remnants of a superstitious age.' 

That statement is most pathetic. What is needed in 
the medical direction is twofold. First, that every mis- 
sion-station should have, if possible, a good Christian 
medical man attached to it, whether he be also a min- 
ister of the Gospel or not. No mission-station can be 
considered complete without him. But, secondly, also, 
that among the many thousands of miserable villages 
which exist throughout India, the natives should be 
convinced that where a Christian nation desires really 
to diminish their sufferings, to prevent their epidemics, 
to cure their diseases, it does not of necessity desire to 
interfere with their religious creed, whatever that may 
be. Lastly, I would observe that any highly educated, 
good medical men, such as those I have mentioned 
before— Latham, Alison, Abercrombie, and many others — 
would act on the principle thus suggested. A book has 
lately been written by Mr. Pandian, a native of Madras 
and a Christian, who has for some years lived among 
the miserable down-trodden and sickly villagers, often 
being allowed by them to take medical care of them, 
which he succeeded in doing without giving offence 
in any way, while helping them to be better and wiser 
both as citizens and as men. It is clear that every 
district in India or in any part of the world which is 
redeemed from idolatry and superstition, and brought 



itl 

Within the influence of the Church of Christ, will at 
once, in the very nature of the case, have all modern 
medical advantages as part of the Christian organiza- 
tion ; but that ought not to hinder this ancient Univer- 
sity from persuading, if it can, some of its best men to 
assist in every good work of the great Empire, whether 
simply as medical men in one or other department of 
medicine ; or, if they prefer it, distinctively as preachers 
of the Gospel. 

But it is my duty to repeat that some of the best 
informed men whom I have consulted, both as regards 
India and even Africa, also advise this course. For you, 
therefore, if you take, as I do in truth pray you may, — in 
the interest of the Empire and of mankind, — the choice 
of this work already undertaken by noble missionaries 
increasing in number, we English Churchmen will bid 
you hearty and thankful welcome. 

I may be. forgiven for writing, as my last words, on 
the great subject which is handled by the Society that 
adopted Robert Boyle as their representative. The vast 
progress in Physical Science in the last half century, 
together with the knowledge of the truth which has 
come through the Higher Criticism, so-called, both in 
the Old and New Testament, seems to have proved that 
the earnest study of the one is incomplete without— to 
say the least— sympathy with, and faith in, the other. 
The love of God the Father, through Christ, brings 
a comprehension of, and deep interest in, what we call, 
generally, Nature. This is true of the animal and 
vegetable world, with all that concerns their evolution 
in our planet. The Universe can only be understood, 
if understood at all, when studied as a whole. This 



92 

was realized by the Prophets and the Psalmist alike 
of the Hebrew race : before Christ had said, ' Consider 
the lilies of the field how they grow : they toil not, 
neither do they spin. Solomon in all his glory was 
not arrayed like one of these.' 'A sparrow shall not 
fall on the ground without your Father.' Man alone 
lives in conscious relation to the Author of all these 
by Love and Adoration, which they have not. The con- 
clusion of the whole is, that the scientist of the future 
who ignores, or affects to ignore, Religion : and the 
Religious teacher who mistrusts the progress of Science 
is, each in his own way, shutting his eyes to the con- 
ditions in which man has been placed and exists. 



Accession no. YUL tr - 



Author Acland: 
Medical missions 
1898. 

Call no. RA390 
8 98 A